There are 3 primary requirements for an expat to get a residency visa.
The first is to show that you have at least $800 ($1,200 for a couple) of reliable pension/income from a source such as Social Security.
If you do not have a pension or Social Security, you can fulfill the requirements for a residency visa by purchasing a property at a price of at least $25,000.
An alternative is to deposit and leave $25,000 in an Ecuadorian bank account.
Once you fulfill one of these requirements, you can begin the process of applying for a residency visa in Ecuador.